Category Archives: Theoretical Notes

Theoretical Notes on Marxism-Leninism Mao Tse-tung’s Thought

On Authority – Great Comrade Frederick Engels

[The following article of Great Comrade Frederick Engels is taken from Marx Engels Collected Works, Progress Publisher, Moscow Volume 23. The article was written against the anarchist and opportunist trends within the proletarian movement that denied authority, mostly revolutionary authority and advocated anarchism. On the occasion of the martyr day of great Comrade Engels on 5th August we are republishing this article of our great leader and teacher.—Liberation]
A number of Socialists have latterly launched a regular crusade against what they call the principle of authority. It suffices to tell them that this or that act is authoritarian for it to be condemned. This summary mode of procedure is being abused to such an extent that it has become necessary to look into the matter somewhat more closely.
Authority, in the sense in which the word is used here, means: the imposition of the will of another upon ours; on the other hand, authority presupposes subordination. Now, since these two words sound bad, and the relationship which they represent is disagreeable to the subordinated party, the question is to ascertain whether there is any way of dispensing with it, whether — given the conditions of present-day society — we could not create another social system, in which this authority would be given no scope any longer, and would consequently have to disappear.

On examining the economic, industrial and agricultural conditions which form the basis of present-day bourgeois society, we find that they tend more and more to replace isolated action by combined action of individuals. Modern industry, with its big factories and mills, where hundreds of workers supervise complicated machines driven by steam, has superseded the small workshops of the separate producers; the carriages and wagons of the highways have become substituted by railway trains, just as the small schooners and sailing feluccas have been by steam-boats. Even agriculture falls increasingly under the dominion of the machine and of steam, which slowly but relentlessly put in the place of the small proprietors big capitalists, who with the aid of hired workers cultivate vast stretches of land.
Everywhere combined action, the complication of processes dependent upon each other, displaces independent action by individuals. But whoever mentions combined action speaks of organisation; now, is it possible to have organisation without authority?
Supposing a social revolution dethroned the capitalists, who now exercise their authority over the production and circulation of wealth. Supposing, to adopt entirely the point of view of the anti-authoritarians, that the land and the instruments of labour had become the collective property of the workers who use them. Will authority have disappeared, or will it only have changed its form? Let us see.
Let us take by way if example a cotton spinning mill. The cotton must pass through at least six successive operations before it is reduced to the state of thread, and these operations take place for the most part in different rooms. Furthermore, keeping the machines going requires an engineer to look after the steam engine, mechanics to make the current repairs, and many other labourers whose business it is to transfer the products from one room to another, and so forth. All these workers, men, women and children, are obliged to begin and finish their work at the hours fixed by the authority of the steam, which cares nothing for individual autonomy. The workers must, therefore, first come to an understanding on the hours of work; and these hours, once they are fixed, must be observed by all, without any exception. Thereafter particular questions arise in each room and at every moment concerning the mode of production, distribution of material, etc., which must be settled by decision of a delegate placed at the head of each branch of labour or, if possible, by a majority vote, the will of the single individual will always have to subordinate itself, which means that questions are settled in an authoritarian way. The automatic machinery of the big factory is much more despotic than the small capitalists who employ workers ever have been. At least with regard to the hours of work one may write upon the portals of these factories: Lasciate ogni autonomia, voi che entrate! [Leave, ye that enter in, all autonomy behind!]
If man, by dint of his knowledge and inventive genius, has subdued the forces of nature, the latter avenge themselves upon him by subjecting him, in so far as he employs them, to a veritable despotism independent of all social organisation. Wanting to abolish authority in large-scale industry is tantamount to wanting to abolish industry itself, to destroy the power loom in order to return to the spinning wheel.
Let us take another example — the railway. Here too the co-operation of an infinite number of individuals is absolutely necessary, and this co-operation must be practised during precisely fixed hours so that no accidents may happen. Here, too, the first condition of the job is a dominant will that settles all subordinate questions, whether this will is represented by a single delegate or a committee charged with the execution of the resolutions of the majority of persona interested. In either case there is a very pronounced authority. Moreover, what would happen to the first train dispatched if the authority of the railway employees over the Hon. passengers were abolished?
But the necessity of authority, and of imperious authority at that, will nowhere be found more evident than on board a ship on the high seas. There, in time of danger, the lives of all depend on the instantaneous and absolute obedience of all to the will of one.
When I submitted arguments like these to the most rabid anti-authoritarians, the only answer they were able to give me was the following: Yes, that’s true, but there it is not the case of authority which we confer on our delegates, but of a commission entrusted! These gentlemen think that when they have changed the names of things they have changed the things themselves. This is how these profound thinkers mock at the whole world.
We have thus seen that, on the one hand, a certain authority, no matter how delegated, and, on the other hand, a certain subordination, are things which, independently of all social organisation, are imposed upon us together with the material conditions under which we produce and make products circulate.
We have seen, besides, that the material conditions of production and circulation inevitably develop with large-scale industry and large-scale agriculture, and increasingly tend to enlarge the scope of this authority. Hence it is absurd to speak of the principle of authority as being absolutely evil, and of the principle of autonomy as being absolutely good. Authority and autonomy are relative things whose spheres vary with the various phases of the development of society. If the autonomists confined themselves to saying that the social organisation of the future would restrict authority solely to the limits within which the conditions of production render it inevitable, we could understand each other; but they are blind to all facts that make the thing necessary and they passionately fight the world.
Why do the anti-authoritarians not confine themselves to crying out against political authority, the state? All Socialists are agreed that the political state, and with it political authority, will disappear as a result of the coming social revolution, that is, that public functions will lose their political character and will be transformed into the simple administrative functions of watching over the true interests of society. But the anti-authoritarians demand that the political state be abolished at one stroke, even before the social conditions that gave birth to it have been destroyed. They demand that the first act of the social revolution shall be the abolition of authority. Have these gentlemen ever seen a revolution? A revolution is certainly the most authoritarian thing there is; it is the act whereby one part of the population imposes its will upon the other part by means of rifles, bayonets and cannon — authoritarian means, if such there be at all; and if the victorious party does not want to have fought in vain, it must maintain this rule by means of the terror which its arms inspire in the reactionists. Would the Paris Commune have lasted a single day if it had not made use of this authority of the armed people against the bourgeois? Should we not, on the contrary, reproach it for not having used it freely enough?
Therefore, either one of two things: either the anti-authoritarians don’t know what they’re talking about, in which case they are creating nothing but confusion; or they do know, and in that case they are betraying the movement of the proletariat. In either case they serve the reaction.


To The Comrades —Leader of heart respected Com. Mahadev Mukherjee

Beloved Comrades,
The historic 28th July is the martyr day of respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar. On this very day the monsters murdered the apple of our eyes, the successful implementer of  Chairman Mao Tse-tung’s Thought – Vice Chairman Comrade Lin Piao’s Theory of People’s War – respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar, and they were conspiring for this murder since a long time.
Therefore, in order to avenge the murders of respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar, leader of the party respected Comrade Saroj Dutta and thousands of other martyrs the conscious role of the very party personally built by respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar needs to be applied correctly.
In order to play the conscious role of the party it is imperative to strengthen the party.

However, the way the political and organisational outline of the party was delivered by respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar and was observed by the martyrs of the past is not only in shortage at present but missing altogether. At present there is no more secret organisation at all. Does this looks good for a revolutionary party? Due to this party units are not built. The concept of the party is gradually disappearing from mind. Why did the secret organisation got scattered like this? Is it because of the lack of revolutionary zeal to build revolutionary organisation? Or because of the tendency to part way from difficult tasks and struggle due  to immense accumulation of self interest within us? Lack of courage, the lack of the mentality to face all hardships in the past is felt more strongly at present. Difficulties are to be surmounted, the condition of the enemy and our own conditions are to be analysed and according to that the plan of action and tactics are to be developed, there is a huge deficit of this now.

Therefore, it is necessary to build up the political and organisational outline of the party correctly.

The Theory of People’s War of Vice Chairman Comrade Lin Piao, i.e the theory of consolidating the strength of the party in the countryside and then seizing the cities needs to be grasped and the People’s Army, the focus of our strength in the countryside, needs to be built. Regarding building of People’s Army what I want to say is that the People’s Army that respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar had built, at present the People’s Army is not there in that proper spirit, therefore, we have to build up the People’s Army following the ray of the politics of respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar from the outlook of Magurjaan. The Revolutionary Committees that we have built has not yet got the proper shape till now. If we could build up Revolutionary Committees then could those monsters dare to conspire against and murder the Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee immortal martyr Comrade Tarak Sardar? Because, then they could
have seen the powerful People’s Army is beside the Revolutionary Committee, and the Revolutionary Committee filled with the spirit of struggle.
Though those monsters are scared of the Revolutionary Committees. As they know the Revolutionary Committee is a lethal weapon against them. Therefore, they have killed today the Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee.
Therefore the Revolutionary Committee needs to be filled with revolutionary and struggling spirit and should be freed from economist and showist trends. The party needs to be filled with more spirit of struggle.
Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar taught us: “If the party is alive the struggle will happen and the struggle will of course rise to developed stages.” Regarding keeping the party alive he meant strengthening the party. Because he himself said :”The manner in which the struggle is progressing under the leadership of our party then if calculated our country will not be liberated even in 2001, forget 75.” – Come let us strengthen the party  in the similar manner as respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar wanted to by hammering at the target by saying the above statement. Then the struggle will grow strong. Then and there only we will be able to comprehend and observe the countrywide insurrection. Then only we will be able to commemorate the martyr day of immortal martyr respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar correctly.
Therefore, the pledge of historic 28th July be – come, let us transform our grief into hatred and plunge into the struggle by overcoming all weaknesses. Smashing the revisionism within and outside, that is hammering the party too much at present, let us firmly grasp and by mastering Chairman Mao Tse-tung’s Thought – The Theory of People’s War of Vice Chairman Comrade Lin Piao and the politics of respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar, holding high the banner of internationalism – the banner of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, strengthening the party with revolutionary leadership, which is strongly connected with the peasant leadership, let us march ahead on the path of liberating the world by liberating India by building up Revolutionary Committees and the People’s Army in the correct sense.
Accept my red salute.
With Revolutionary Greetings
Mahadev Mukherjee
17th July 1991

In Memory Of Martyrs—Respected leader Com.Charu Mazumdar

AT midnight of 4th and 5th August the police captured Comrade Saroj Dutta and on that very night shot him dead secretly.
Chairman has said: “It is not hard for one to do a bit of good. What is hard is to do good all one’s life and never do anything bad, to act consistently in the interests of the broad masses, the young people and the revolution, and to engage in arduous struggle for decades on end. That is the hardest thing of all!”

Comrade Saroj Dutta was such a comrade and his entire life was spent in working for the revolution.
There is no reactionary force which did not fear his pen which was as sharp as a razor. That is why the police force did not even dare enact the farce of a trial, they murdered him on that night itself.

Like all reactionary powers of the world the lndian Government and its accomplices – all the reactionary and revisionist parties-want to arrest the march of revolution by resorting to mass murders on a wide scale. In the Cossipore-Baranagar area they unitedly entered into a conspiracy and murdered over a hundred youths. The police and the goondas who committed the murders were engaged for the purpose by all those rogues who, in the name of restoring “Law and Order”, were holding conferences with a view to preserving this man-eating system and uniting against the revolutionaries. Today when their mask is falling off their face before the people, when it is no longer difficult for the people to recognise the blood-stained hand of the murderers, they have come forward to show sympathy for the murdered revolutionary youths to hide their devilry.They executed the same conspiracy in Barasat and Uttarpara.
The orgy of murder in which they indulged in the Cossipore and Baranagar area has surpassed all previous records of their demoniac acts.

In jails also they are killing revolutionary cadres by opening fire on prisoners or lathi-charging them. They are thinking that in this way they will be able to arrest the progress of revolution. In South Vietnam the Diem clique wanted to stop the onward march of revolution by carrying on killings in this manner. The result is, the strength of the National Liberation Front has increased and it has defeated the American aggressors repeatedly. In India this killing will rouse the anger and hatred of men and a new India will be built on the destruction of the murderous system-this is the law of history. The reactionaries will have to repay in blood the blood debt that each act of murder accumulates.

Comrade Saroj Dutta was a leader of the Party and he died a hero’s death befitting a leader. His revolutionary steadfastness should serve as a model for youths. Overcoming all weaknesses, the youths will have to take to the path of revolution more resolutely and avenge these killings by integrating themselves with the workers and poor and landless peasants.


{Written on August 16-1971 / Published in Liberation July 1971 – January 1972 Issue}

Red Salute To The Heroic Peasants Of Kamalpur — Leader of Heart Respected Comrade Mahadev Mukherjee

Today there are several groups in India that hangs the board of the CPI (M-L). However, whom are the enemies targetting?

With whom the battles are fought? Who are turning martyrs? The enemies have marked us as the enemy number one and hence we are the top most enemy for this reactionary government.

Therefore we are the true soldiers of Chairman Mao. We could draw the clear line of distinction between us and the enemies.

We have stood most boldly on behalf of Chairman Mao. Therefore our victory in this struggle is inevitable.

In this struggle our comrades are turning martyrs. And we will definitely avenge them. The avenging of respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar’s murder, the avenging of the murder of immortal martyr Comrade Kalipada Saha, the revenge of these martyr comrades will integrate with each other.

We are sacrificing blood, and also shedding their blood. Therefore respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar said in his historic speech “We sacrificed a lot of blood in Srikakulam, and we have also made the enemy shed its blood.” Otherwise on one hand the thoughts of easy victory or depression on the other hand can engulf us. Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar fought against two deviations through that speech. On one hand he escalated the courage, upheld victory, and tried to wipe off the thoughts of defeat. On the other hand he hammered the thoughts of easy victory. Revolution will not be successful without the sacrifice of blood, he established this truth.


Soviet and China both have two different views regarding Vietnam. Soviets magnified the imperialist oppression, China upheld the counter strike, the struggle of the masses. This picture boosts our courage and increases the capacity to fight.

Our comrades will also turn martyrs in the process of this counter strike. The revisionists will try to portray this as losses. They want to cease the struggle preaching about these losses. But, this is no loss, this are deposits. The blood of the martyrs never cause losses, they create assets. They create the iron bastion.

Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar said “with tears the dust of the path is moisted, with blood it is made firm.”

The blood of the martyrs makes the people firm. Without blood there is no clotting. Chairman Mao told us about being firm – without blood firmness is not formed, firmness is not achieved unless blood is poured.

Today, in Bardhaman there is the revisionist struggle of Harekeshto & co. and on the other hand the revolutionary peasant’s struggle of Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar. The gunshots of the peasants bombarded the headquarters of the revisionists. They are panic sticken, that is why they are arresting the people. That means they are considering the whole region as Naxal region. The fact that we have penetrated deep inside the people is proved in the actions of the enemies.

That very struggle of the people in Bardhaman will boost the courage today. We will avenge the martyrs today, we will fight intensly, and we will destroy all powers of the enemies.

The Comrades who has turned martyrs today, has turned martyr to protect the area, to protect the people. They were aroused by the consciousness of the liberated zone for this struggle, without the consciousness of the liberated zone this struggle would have been impossible. When the comrades will hear about this struggle their courage will be boosted and the condition of India will change. This struggle will bring new tides.

Today it is again been proved that the words of Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar cannot go in vain. Medinipur bursted, 24 Parganas bursted and Bardhaman bursted. The strength of the comrades increases by faith on the masses, by faith on Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar. The places where temporary setback happened, all those places have flared up now. Medinipur and Birbhum has flared up.

“Do not let the blood of the martyrs go in vain. Start immense assault in new ways.” This assault by new ways has already started. This path is the path of counter strike. This path is the path of smashing the assault of the enemies. The comrades have launched counter strikes. They are replying with their audacity.

If the comrades turn martyr in this struggle we will feel the pain, tears will roll from eyes. We have to transform that very pain into the resolution for greater sacrifices.

We have to fight more intensly. We have to take more hard revenges. These comrades who embraced martyrdom, they striked at the revisionism within us, they striked against our weakness and our self interests.

Today the struggle has erupted in Birbhum. This struggle of Birbhum boosted the morale of the people. Today if we can play our conscious role amidst this revolutionary mood prevailing in the people, then who can stop us? Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar said Bengal will turn to Vietnam, but only if we are ready to fulfill the conditions then only Bengal will turn into Vietnam. These comrades are turning martyrs in their attempt to fulfill those conditions given by Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar.


Therefore, we have to flare up with intense class hatred at present. Therefore if we have to keep up the courage to fulfill the year 75, if we have to avenge the martyrs then we must make Chairman Mao’s clarion call dare to fight and dare to win our mantra. Resolute to fight, determined to win; this is repeating itself today. Without the courage to fight 75 cannot be realised. Without struggle 75 cannot be comprehended.

Therefore, at present we have to fight against revisionism and against self interests with much more firmness.

The path on which those disciples of Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar marched the very lines of that very path is illumninated in front of our eyes today. They have done historic work, they have taken revenge, they have sacrificed lives.

They have initiated the task of the revenges of July. The comrades have left some samples of what will happen in July. The tide of the struggle rose another height. The whole country is awakened with a new flood of life.

In each area our organisation will rise, fall, collapse and again grow this is the law. In place of one Kalinagar thousands upon thousands of Kalinagar will be formed. We have to see this creation. Attack was mounted on Naxalbari, but Naxalbari could not be destroyed. Naxalbari cannot die.

It is because Naxalbari is a politics. Similarly Kalinagar is turning into a politics, Kamalpur is turning into a politics. It is not enough to see the outer shell the inner content must be obeserved too. The victory belongs to us must be observed. During the temporary set back of 72 respected leader

Comrade Charu Mazumdar observed insurrection, he saw the people rising with their heads held high. Among the traditional weapons of the peasantry he saw the rifle. Therefore we have to see the uprising within the downfall, we have to see counter strike within attacks, we have to see victory.

The politics of respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar has penetrated deep inside the masses. They are powerless to prevent it. So they can do encirclement and repression in Kamalpur by the military but those comrades will spread. The people will provide them shelter. They will then create Kalinagar there. This is the law.

The revisionists magnifies depression. Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar upheld victory. The task of the revolutionaries is to hold high victory to see the new.

Here lies the difference between revisionists and revolutionaries.

However, despite all these if the conscious role of our party remains absent then the revisionists – reactionaries will try to grasp them. Jayprakash will try to divert the struggle of Bihar on other path, Fernandez will try to destroy the heroic struggle of railways.

Nothing remains vacuum. Therefore we have to fill that place. From whom does the people wants leadership? not from Jay prakash or Fernandez. As they (people) belongs to us, they belongs to respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar. Therefore we have to find out our mistakes.

We have to carry on continuous struggle. No liberalism can be permitted here. We have to fight here.

As Comrade Stalin protected Lenin’s Soviet, it is strongly felt that we have to protect respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar’s India like that at present. We have to make his dreams come true.

We have to learn from Saroj Dutta, never saw Saroj Dutta depressed. Because, if spreading depression is revisionism so is staying depressed.


16th June 1974



Fight Against The Concrete Manifestations of Revisionism – Respected leader Comrade Charu Mazumdar

Charu Mazumdar

NAXALBARI represents the first ever application of Mao Tse-tung Thought on the soil of India. It was in Naxalbari that the peasants, for the first time, launched their struggle for the seizure of power. For this reason, Naxalbari symbolises the path of liberation for the exploited masses of the Indian people, thus ushering in a new era in the political history of India. This new political era in India can be understood only by what Comrade Stalin said about the Chinese revolution, that is, in India today armed revolution has begun its battle with armed counter-revolution. Waging revolutionary war has, therefore, become the only and main tactic of the revolutionary masses.

A correct leadership is essential for waging this revolutionary war successfully. It is precisely for this reason that the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) has been established. Unless we understand this new situation in India, we can have no understanding of the significance and work of the revolutionary Party. That is why our Party is the party of armed struggle, the party which will lead the Indian people’s democratic revolution to victory.

It is the duty of every member and every front of our Party to carry forward this revolutionary civil war. So, our Party’s work will always be directed towards carrying forward the revolutionary civil war.

The ways of doing things which were created and developed so far by the communist movement in India have become wholly and entirely useless in the present era. This is so because they are unable to serve the needs of the present era. The present revolutionary civil war can be carried on only on the basis of the Thought of Chairman Mao Tsetung and only by creating a new style of work.

So, the Party members must first of all be able to grasp the revolutionary politics, and must give prominence to this politics in all their work.

Secondly, every Party member must show initiative in whatever he does. He must adhere to our Party’s political line and general directive, study Mao Tse-tung Thought, take initiative and thus be able to create ingenious ways of doing things. The practice of waiting for instructions to come from the Party leadership will rob this Party of its mobility and the Party will be unable to fulfill its revolutionary task.

Thirdly, every Party member must be highly vigilant.

In this era, when imperialism is heading towards total collapse, world imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism have turned India into their base and are hatching plots to destroy great China and the national liberation struggles of south-east Asia. The armed struggle in India led by the revolutionary Party will foil all their plots. For this reason, they aim, on the one hand, at destroying our Party through repression while, on the other, they aim at undermining its fighting capability by sending their agents into the Party, thus creating political disruption within it. Our old revisionist ideas and style of work are forces which help the imperialist scheme. That is why every Party member must be on the alert and vigilant against erroneous politics, and also against any attempt that may be made to undermine initiative in the name of carrying on “political struggle” within the Party. Our political consciousness and style of work are weapons with which we can prevent imperialist infiltration into our Party. So, every Party member must also be on the alert against such infiltration.

Fourthly, every Party member must be industrious. Influence of bourgeois ideology breeds laziness and passivity. Having revolutionary consciousness means having unfailing zeal to do hard work and fulfill arduous tasks.

A great responsibility has fallen on our shoulders. We have to translate into reality the dream of making a revolution-the dream which has remained unfulfilled during the forty years of communist movement in India. We can fulfill this task only by mobilizing our entire strength and industriousness, by combining the two. We can achieve our goal and make an ‘impossible’ thing possible only by bringing into full play our strength and ability.

Our task is to carry out agrarian revolution and to establish bases of armed struggle in the countryside. Therefore, every Party member must share the thoughts and aspirations of the peasant masses and integrate themselves with them; be ready at all times to make all kinds of sacrifices and come forward tirelessly to serve the people.

The Communist Party members must set themselves up as exemplary models before the masses. Only in this way can they inspire the masses. Therefore, every Party member must fight against self-interest and individualism. Only thus can we introduce revolutionary discipline into the Party without which no revolutionary war can be sustained.


Only a Party composed of such members, however small in the beginning, is able to organize peasants’ revolutionary struggle, to strengthen Party’s class basis by making the workers and the poor and landless peasants politically conscious, and to turn itself into a big Party

capable of leading the revolution to victory.


Our Party’s growth and development depend on how firmly we fight revisionism both inside and, outside the Party. And not only that. The growth and development of the peasants’ armed struggle also depend on the fight against revisionism. Precisely for this reason it is said

that creating a high tide of struggle depends on how wIdely we can spread and propagate Mao Tse-tung Thought as well as on adopting the new style of work. It is only because we have been unable to master the correct applIcation of Mao Tse-tung Thought that we are not able to

extend the struggle to still wider areas. It has, therefore, become the urgent task today to fight against the clear and concrete manifestations of revisionism.


Some of the revisionist ideas that still persist inside our Party and against which we are struggling at present are given here.


First, economism. At present economism expresses itself in the line of thinking according to which the workers and the poor and landless, peasants will be unable to accept revolutionary politics unless they are led into open struggles on economic demands. This line of thinking

weakens all our work like propagating revolutionary politics, propagating the politics of seizure of power, and building revolutionary base areas in the countryside. Such a line of thinking makes the Party members concentrate their attention and work on organizing struggles for economic demands, and politics loses its place of prominence.

Lastly, such a line of thinking makes one contemptuous of the workers and the peasant masses and rely on the intelligentsia. But Chairman Mao has taught us that the struggle for production and the class struggle along with scientific experiment constitute the sources of

knowledge. The intelligentsia have no access to these sources, namely, the struggle for production and the class struggle, while the workers and the peasant masses have both these sources of knowledge. Secondly, only the peasant masses led by the working class can win victory in the revolution, and Mao Tse-tung Thought is the revolutionary ideology of the working class. That is why it is precisely the workers and the poor and landless peasants who grasp the politics of the seizure of power and of building revolutionary bases in the countryside most thoroughly once these are explained to them. This is because it is they who suffer most from the exploitation and oppression of the existing social system, and the revolution serves them more than anybody else.


We do not say that we shall never wage struggles for economic demands. What we say is that political propaganda and building Party organizations are the foremost and main task before us.


Economism in the peasant movement expresses itself in the form of rejecting the necessity for waging guerrilla warfare, thus concentrating the attention of the peasants on the question of seizing land and crops. Such economist ideas place open struggle above everything else, discourage any thought of building secret organizations or maintaining secrecy, strengthen the tendency toward spontaneity and belittle the role and importance of conscious leadership.


Such economist ideas belittle the importance of setting up secret Party organizations among the revolutionary classes, thus preventing the members of these classes from entering into the Party. Such economist tendency increases our dependence on the petty bourgeois intelligentsia. The idea that peasant struggles cannot possibly be

organized unless the members of the petty bourgeois intelligentsia are sent to the villages for this purpose still persists and is still firmly rooted in our Party. We feel ill at ease whenever some assignments are given to a Party unit consisting of poor and landless peasants with the result that we fail to develop their initiative.

There is nothing against the members of the petty bourgeois intelligentsia going to the villages. But they must go there for becoming good communists and good revolutionaries, and to learn from the poor and landless peasants. They must not go there to lead the poor and landless peasants, because only the poor and landless peasants themselves, and none else can be the leaders of their struggle. The task before the comrades who belong to the petty bourgeois intelligentsia and are inspired by the Thought of Mao Tse-tung which they have learned, is to educate the poor and landless peasants in the Thought of Mao Tsetung. Dependence on the petty bourgeois intelligentsia is the result of the influence of bourgeois ideology, and we must rid the Party of this.


The influence of bourgeois ideology is also evident from the fact that we rely more on weapons than on people. We must never forget the teachings of Chairman Mao and Comrade Lin Piao in this respect. Chairman Mao, has pointed out: “Weapons are an important factor

in war, but not the decisive factor; it is people, not things, that are decisive.” The oppressed and persecuted peasants launch their struggle against the ruling classes with bare hands or with whatever they have, but as needs arise with the development of the struggle and dictated by the compulsions of advancing the revolution, they begin snatching and seizing arms from the ruling classes. This is how people’s armed forces develop. It is impossible to wage a revolutionary war by bringing arms from outside. This is so because, as Chairman Mao has taught us in waging a revolutionary war we must rely on the masses. “The revolutionary war is a war of the masses; it can be waged only by mobilizing the masses and relying on them.”

Our experience also shows that we cannot wage guerrilla warfare simply by acquiring sophisticated weapons; we must be able to bring up men armed with Mao Tse-tung Thought to wield those weapons. Unless we are able to bring up such men the weapons will be of no use. And such men are brought up only through revolutionary class struggle, only through annihilating the class enemies. The guerrilla unit that has not done this can achieve little even with guns.


Another manifestation of bourgeois ideology is to magnify the importance of actions while giving no importance at all to political propaganda. This is what Chairman Mao has called ‘militarism’.

The work of political propaganda must be raised to a newer and higher level at every stage of guerrilla warfare. Only when the masses begin to grasp Mao Tse-tung Thought their level of political conciousness will rise and only then will they be able to conquer death. Precisely for this reason it is said that once Mao Tse-tung Thought is combined with the force of arms, an invincible power is brought into being which can match and defeat any other power, however strong. The Party members must, therefore, constantly try to develop political propaganda.


But we can feel the urge for doing this only when we begin to understand what the poor and landless peasants are thinking, and integrate ourselves with them through the propagation of the mass line.


Party leadership at all levels must shoulder the responsibility of and take good care in developing the mass line and educating the Party members in the propagation of the mass line.


Comrades, U.S. imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism are today hatching plots for launching a war of aggression against the great socialist China, and Soviet social-imperialism has been repeatedly carrying on armed provocations against China along the stretches of the Sino-Soviet border. We must remember Chairman Mao’s teaching:”With regard to the question of world war, there are but two possibilities: One is that the war will give rise to revolution and the other is that revolution will prevent the war.” The possibility of a war is very real at present. The responsihility of the communist revolutionaries in India has today increased manifold. We must be able to prevent this war with revolution. If, however, the imperialists succeed in launching a war of aggression inspite of us, then a large share of the responsibility of burning these warmongers into ashes will have to be shouldered by us, that is, the revolutionaries of India – a vast country of 500 million people. Hence, we must fear neither hardship nor death; we must shatter all the trammels of revisionist ideas that bind us today, and march forward. along a new path, and master the new style of work and mobilize all our forces to spread the flames of the revolutionary war to every State of India. This revolutionary war will deal a crushing blow at the unity of the imperialists, revisionists and reactionaries and smash it and the weakness of the enemy in its turn will bring about a new revolutionary hightide. The revolutionary struggle in India will bring a new inspiration, a new impetus to the revolutionary struggle in every other country of the world.


The great Ninth Congress of the great, glorious and correct Communist Party of China has given out the clarion call: a new era of world revolution has begun ; the revolutionary struggle the world over will destroy world imperialism and Soviet revisionism.

A world without exploitation-the dream that the world’s people have dreamed for ages-will be born. We are the architects of that brilliant new future. Today, we are fortunate in having been entrusted with the most sacred, the noblest of tasks in the world. Let every comrade plunge into this work with all his strength and make the best use of it.


Long live Chairman Mao! A long, long life to him!

[Translated from the original text as appeared in the Bengali weekly DESHABRATI. September 4,1969.]


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